acidic pH below 7
adsorption process by which molecules become attached to the surface
Alkaline pH above 7
Alternate leaves that are staggered, not placed directly across from each other on the twig
annual ring visible circle in x-section of tree produced by one year’s growth
Anther upper part of the stamen where the pollen is produced
apex the tip, furthermost part of something; strictly the pointed or angular summit as in shoot or root apex
Axillary bud bud in the axil of a leaf; lateral bud
azimuth compass direction, i.e., 120 degrees is southeast
BAF prism device used to determine groups of trees of specific size
bare root a tree without soil on its roots when transplanted
basic pH between 7 and 14
bedrock consolidated rock
biltmore stick used to measure tree diameter and height
board foot a standard unit of measure for lumber, (1″x1′x1′) before surfacing or finishing
bole a tree trunk
branch a larger outgrowing stem that grows from the trunk
broadleaf trees that have wide, flat leaves
buds structures at the end and side stem that develops into a flower, leaf, twig or shoot
Bundle scar small dots or lines on the surface of the leaf scar marking the point of original departure of the conducting strands into the leaf
Calyx the external, usually green leafy portion of a flower consisting of sepals; frequently cup like in form
cambium living cells that divide to form phloem and xylem
canopy upper part of the forest, consisting of the crown of trees
Catkin A compact and often drooping cluster of reduced, stalkless, and usually unisexual flowers
chain a tool used to determine horizontal distances
chlorophyll the green pigments in plants that absorb the energy of sunlight for use in the manufacture of sugars from carbon dioxide and water
climatic range geographic limits of growth for a particular type of tree
clinometer a tool used to determine height of tree at given distance
commercial forest trees grown for the production of lumber
compass a tool used to determine direction
compost a mixture of decomposing organic matter used as a fertilizer, mulch, or soil conditioner
Compound a leaf with more than one blade, all blades are attached to a single leaf stem
conifer trees that bear seeds in cones and have long needle-like leaves
cord stack of wood 4′x4′x8′ or the equivalent
crown class method of classifying a trees’ position in the canopy
crown the upper branches and foliage of a tree
cruising process of estimating the pulpwood or lumber in a stand of trees
DBH diameter breast height; diameter of a tree trunk in inches 4.5 ft above ground
deciduous plants that shed all of their leaves at the end of the growing season
defoliators insects that remove leaves from trees
dendrochronology the study of the age of trees by counting the rings of xylem growth
dendrology the study of trees
dessication the process of drying out
diameter tape used to directly measure the diameter of a tree
Dioecious of a species in which individuals are unisexual (male or female)
drought extended period of time when a significant lack of moisture persists
Drupe a fleshy fruit with a central hard core containing one or more seeds
Erosion the wearing away of land or soil by the action of wind, water, or ice
evergreen plants that retain their green foliage throught out the year
feeder roots hair-like roots through which the tree obtains water and nutrients
flower the reproductive unit of a seed-bearing plant
forest harvest periodic removal of trees for lumber
forest pathology study of diseases in forest trees
forest tract a particular set of trees
forest a large tract of land covered with trees and underbrush
forestry the science of managing trees, shrubs and animals
fruit product of plant consisting of ripened seeds with a tissue around it
fungus a large group of plants lacking chlorophyll like molds, mildews, rusts, mushrooms and smuts, subsisting upon dead or living organic matter
Glabrous hairless, smooth
groundwater subsurface water occupying the zone of saturation, the gravitational water below the water table
growth rate how fast a tree will grow on an average site
heartwood hard central wood consisting of dead cells that give strength to the tree (usually darker in color)
herbarium an organized collection of dried of preserved plant specimens
humus black or brown layer of composted organic matter
increment borer auger-like tool used to extract cores from the tree trunk to find age
insulation a barrier of dead air space to reduce change in temperature
lateral roots grow horizontally and help keep the tree upright
Leaf scar the mark left on the twig where the leaf was previously attached
leaf single unit of foliage; usually the site of food manufacture by photosynthsis
Lenticel opening in the bark that permits the exchange of gases
lumber grades system for determing potential uses of lumber
Monoecious of a population or species having functional male and female organs in separate places on the same plant
mulch a covering such as wood-chips, straw, leaves, etc., spread on the ground around plants to prevent excess evaporation and to enrich the soil
Native inherent and original to a geographical area
NIMBY Not In My Backyard
nutrients mineral elements and compounds which a plant uses for tissue growth
Opposite two or three leaves that are directly across from each other on the same twig
outer bark external covering which helps to protect a tree from injury
pace number of steps for a specific distance (ie. 100ft)
percolation the absorbtion of water into the soil; usually expressed as a rate
Petiole the leaf stalk that connects the blade(s) to the twig
pH a term used to indicate the degree of acidity or alkalinity
phloem produced by the cambium and carries food from leaves to twigs, branches, trunk, and roots
photosysnthesis process of making carbohydrate from water, carbon dioxide, chlorophyll and light
Pistillate having female organs only, may apply to individual flowers or inflorescences, or to plants of a dioecious species in angiosperms collectively the pistils are called the gymoecium
plant press device for drying plant parts for preservation
pruning the selective cutting of branches from trees to remove old stems, dead wood, or give it better shape
psychrometer tool with two thermometers used to find humidity
root ball ball of soil containing the roots of a tree
root hairs a hair-like tubular outgrowth from near the tip of a rootlet, functions in water and mineral absorption
root underground part of a plant that extracts water, oxygen, and nutrients from the soil
Samara winged fruit (seed)
sap the liquid that moves through the tissues of plants
seeds small body made by flowering plants which is capable of growing into a new plant
Sessile a leaf, that lacks a petiole. The leaf is attached directly to the stem
shade leaf larger leaves found in the shade, capable of photosynthesis with indirect sunlight
silviculture the art of producing and caring for a forest
site spot where a tree will grow – consider soil, light and moisture
soil classification system to describe the characteristics of a given soil
soil density how much one cubic centimeter of soil weighs (weight per unit volume)
soil drainage the speed and extent of water movement over and through the soil
soil horizon layers of mature soils
soil profile a diagram of the vertical section of soil noting the horizon layers i.e., A,B,C
subsoil soil below the usual depth of cultivation, brown or reddish colored soil with more clay than surface soils
sun leaf smaller leaves found growing exposed to full sunlight
tap roots grow vertically downward and anchor the tree
Terminal or apical bud the bud located at the end of a shoot.
topsoil surface layer of mature soil, containing large amounts of organic material
transect a straight line that bisects a given unit or area
transpiration the release of water vapor by the leaves into the air
tree form tree shape usually one of 8 types or habits
tree tolerance the ability of trees to endure shade, salt, insects, weather, etc.
tree a woody plant usually over 20 feet high at maturity
trunk the main stem of the tree that transports nutrients
twigs smaller stems that come from the branches
vasculum field container for collecting plant parts
watershed the land that drains into a given stream or pond
Whorled arranged along a twig or shoot in groups of three or more at each node
wind meter device used to determine speed of wind
windbreak vegetation planted across the prevailing wind direction to reduce windspeed
xylem complex tissue in higher plants that carries sap from roots to leaves

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